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Paralysis is loss of muscle function for one or more muscles. Paralysis can be accompanied by a loss of feeling (sensory loss) in the affected area if there is sensory damage as well as motor. About 1 in 50 people have been diagnosed with some form of paralysis, transient or permanent. The word comes from the Greek παράλυσις, "disabling of the nerves", itself from παρά (para), "beside, by" and λύσις (lysis), "loosing" and that "to loose". A paralysis accompanied by involuntary tremors is usually called "palsy".
Paralysis is most often caused by damage in the nervous system, especially the spinal cord. Other major causes are stroke, trauma with nerve injury, poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy, peripheral neuropathy, Parkinson's disease, ALS, botulism, spina bifida, multiple sclerosis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Paralysis can occur in localised or generalised forms, or it may follow a certain pattern. Most paralyses caused by nervous-system damage (i.e. spinal cord injuries) are constant in nature; however, some forms of periodic paralysis, including sleep paralysis, are caused by other factors. 
Paralysis can occur in newborns due to a congenital defect known as Spina Bifida. Spina Bifida causes one or more of the vertebrae to fail to form vertebral arches within the infant, which allows the spinal cord to protrude from the rest of the spine